1.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
日越, 博信 ; 田中, こころ ; 田中, 志津香 ; 平川, 守彦 ; Higoshi, Hironobu ; Tanaka, Kokoro ; TaNaka, Shizuka ; Hirakawa, Morihiko
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.29-35,  1999-12-01.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3661
概要: 動物病院で診療を受けた,受診犬(27頭)及び受診猫(13頭),動物愛護センターで引き取られるか,捕獲された犬(20頭)及び猫(24頭),計84頭から分離された大腸菌776株について,ABPC,CP,CTC,KM,SM,NA,SAの7薬剤に対 する感受性試験を行った。また耐性菌については,伝達性Rプラスミドの検索を行った。7薬剤のいずれかに耐性であった大腸菌は,犬では102株(24.7%),猫では59株(16.3%)であった。犬の耐性菌検出率では,受診犬(24.0%)と捕獲犬(25.5%)がほぼ同率であったが,猫では受診猫26.8%に対し,引取猫10.6%で,前者が高率であった。薬剤別の検出率は,犬ではCTC耐性が17.7%で最高,以下SA,SM,ABPC耐性の順であり,猫ではSA耐性が12.6%で最高,以下ABPC,CTC,SM耐性の順であった。捕獲犬は受診犬に比較して,すべての薬剤において検出率が高かったが,猫では逆にすべての薬剤で受診猫の方が引取猫より高かった。耐性型は,犬では単剤型から6剤型まで23種類(捕獲犬22種類,受診犬10種類),猫では単剤型から7剤型まで9種類(引取猫6種類,受診猫4種類)であった。受診犬は単剤型と2剤型で73%を占めたが,捕獲犬では3剤型以上が60%に達した。猫では,引取猫の過半数が単剤型と2剤型であったのに対し,受診猫は7剤型のみで62%を占めた。耐性菌における伝達性Rプラスミド保有菌の検出率は,犬が6.1%,猫が35.7%であった。猫では殆どが2剤伝達性であったが,犬では単剤伝達性が殆どであった。<br />Tests for sensitivity to seven drugs were conducted on 776 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from a total of 84 dogs and cats; 27 dogs and 13 cats referred to an animal hospital for treatment (referred group) and 20 dogs and 24 cats taken over or captured by animal protection centers (captured group). In the resistant strains, transferable R plasmid were studied. Resistance to at least one of the 7 drugs was found in 102 (24.7%) of strains obtained from dogs and 59 (16.3%) of strains obtained from cats. The percentage of resistant strains was 24.0% from referred dogs and 25.5% from captured dogs. The corresponding values were 26.8% in referred cats and 10.6% in captured cats. In dogs, the rate of resistance was the highest for CTC (17.7%) followed by SA, SM and ABPC in decreasing order. In cats, the rate of resistance was the highest for SA (12.6%) followed by ABPC, CTC and SM. The rate of drug resistance was higher for each drug in captured dogs than in referred dogs, but higher for each drug in referred cats than in captured cats. As to the range of multiple resistance, 23 combinations ranging from resistance to a single drug to 6 drugs were found in dogs (22 combinations in captured dogs and 10 combinations in referred dogs), whereas 9 combinations ranging from resistance to a single drug to all 7 drugs were found in cats (6 combinations in captured cats and 4 in referred cats). In referred dogs, resistance to 1 or 2 drugs accounted for 73%, whereas resistance to 3 or more drugs accounted for 60% in captured dogs. More than half of the strains from captured cats showed resistance to only 1 or 2 drugs, whereas strains resistant to all 7 drugs accounted for 62% from referred cats. Resistant strains with transferable R plasmid were found in 6.1% of dogs and 35.7% of cats. While 2 drug transfer was mostly found in cats, single drug transfer was mostly found in dogs. 続きを見る
2.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
日越, 博信 ; 宮城, 寿満子 ; 諸見里, 淳子 ; 平川, 守彦 ; Higoshi, Hironobu ; Miyagi, Sumako ; Moromizato, Junko ; Hirakawa, Morihiko
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.35-41,  1998-12-01.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3682
概要: 沖縄県内のヤギ飼養農家22戸, 73頭の糞便由来大腸菌合計822株について, 7薬剤に対する感受性試験を, また耐性菌については伝達性Rプラスミドの検索も行った。これらの成績を給与飼料別(野草のみと野草+穀類), 地域別(北部と南部)に比較 した。7薬剤のいずれかに耐性の大腸菌は, 全体では147株(17.9%)であった。給与飼料別の検出率では野草のみが17.2%, 野草+穀類が18.7%でほぼ同率であった。しかし, 野草のみでは北部31.8%, 南部5.7%で, 前者が高率であったのに対し, 野草+穀類では北部17.8%, 南部19.2%でほぼ同じであった。薬剤別ではCTC耐性が11.3%で最高, 以下SA, ABPC, SM, KM, CP耐性の順であり, NA耐性は検出されなかった。野草のみでは, CTC耐性が両地域とも1位の検出率を示したが, 野草+穀類では, 北部でCTC耐性が1位を, 南部でABPC耐性とSA耐性が同率1位を示すなど, 若干異なった。耐性型の種類は, 全体では5剤型を除く単剤型から6剤型まで17種類認められた。野草のみでは北部6種類, 南部8種類, 野草+穀類ではそれぞれ3種類と6種類であり, いずれも南部が多かった。また6剤型は南部の野草+穀類でのみ検出された。野草+穀類では2剤以上の薬剤に耐性の多剤耐性型が大多数を占め, 特に南部の全株が多剤耐性型であったが, 野草のみでは50&acd;56%が逆に単剤型であった。耐性菌147株のうち, 17株(11.6%)が伝達性Rプラスミドを保有し, 野草のみ9株(北部8株, 南部1株), 野草+穀類8株(南部のみ)であった。これら菌株の伝達耐性型は, 野草のみの9株がCTC単剤伝達性, 野草+穀類では5株がSM単剤伝達性, 3株がSM-SA2剤伝達性であった。<br />We performed sensitivity tests to seven antibiotics on a total of 822 strains of Escherichia coli isolated from the feces of 73 goats from 22 goat farms in Okinawa prefecture. Transmissible R-plasmids were also examined in antibiotic-resistant strains. These results were compared by type of feed (grass only, or mixed feed of grass and concentrated feed) and by district (south or north). A total of 147 strains (17.9%) were resistant to at least one of the seven antibiotics. The detection rates of resistant strains were similar in the grass only group (17.2%) and the mixed feed group (18.7%). However, in the grass only group, the resistance rate was higher in the northern district (31.8%) than in the southern district (5.7%); while in the mixed feed group, the rates in the northern (17.8%) and southern districts (19.2%) were similar. The detection rate of CTC resistance was highest (11.3%), followed by SA, ABPC, SM, KM and CP resistance, with no NA resistance. In the grass only group, the detection rate of CTC resistance was the highest in both the northern and southern districts, whereas in the mixed feed group, CTC resistance was the highest in the northern district, but ABP^4C resistance and SA resistance were the highest in the southern district; showing some difference. Seventeen patterns of resistance were observed, ranging from single-drug to 6-drug resistance, except 5-drug resistance. Six-drug resistance was observed only in the mixed feed group in the southern district. The predominant resistance pattern in the mixed feed group was multiple resistance to 2 or more antibiotics; particulaly, all the resistant strains in the southern district were multiple resistant strains. In contrast, 50 to 56% of the resistant strains in the grass only group showed single-drug resistance. Seventeen of 147 resistant strains (11.6%) caried R-plasmids. Nine strains were isolated from the grass only group (8 strains in the north and 1 strain in the south). The transmissible resistance types were CTC only in 9 strains in the grass only group; SM only in 5 strains and SM-SA in 3 strains in the mixed feed group. 続きを見る
3.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
日越, 博信 ; 親里, 真理子 ; 宮平, 良成 ; 平川, 守彦 ; Higoshi, Hironobu ; Oyasato, Mariko ; Miyahira, Yoshinari ; Hirakawa, Morihiko
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.131-138,  1997-12-01.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3701
概要: 沖縄本島内の一養鶏場で産卵鶏の日齢別に採取した糞便由来大腸菌合計826株について, 7薬剤に対する感受性試験を行い, また耐性菌については伝達性Rプラスミドの検索も試みた。供試した7薬剤のいずれかに耐性の大腸菌は, 314株(38.0%)で あった。日齢別の耐性菌検出率では20日齢が86.9%で最高, 600日齢が8.8%で最低であり, 加齢に伴い低下する傾向を示した。しかし, 500日齢では51.7%を示し, 20日齢に次いで高い値であった。薬剤別ではSA耐性が29.7%で最高, 以下SM, CTC, KM, ABPC耐性などの順であった。各日齢ともSA耐性が1位または2位の検出率を示したが, 200日及び400日齢ではCTC耐性が1位を, また800日齢ではABPC耐性とSA耐性が同率で1位を示すなど, 日齢によって検出順位が異なった。耐性型の種類は, 全体では単剤型から6剤型まで23種類認められたが, 20日齢では16種類, 他の日齢では7種類以下であった。また2剤以上の薬剤に耐性の多剤耐性型が約70%を占め, 特に20日齢では90%が多剤耐性型であり, 6剤型も本日齢のみで検出された。なお200日, 500日及び800日齢でも59&acd;77%が多剤耐性型であった。耐性菌314株における伝達性Rプラスミドの検索では, 60株(19.1%)がRプラスミドを保有していたが, うち47株は500日齢由来であった。300日, 400日及び800日齢ではRプラスミド保有菌が検出されなかった。これら菌株の伝達耐性型は単剤型から4剤型まで見られたが, 49株が単剤伝達型であり, 残りの2&acd;4剤伝達型は20日及び500日齢由来であった。<br />Fecal samples were collected from laying hens at various ages in a poultry farm in Okinawa Prefecture. A total of 826 strains of Escherichia coli were isolated from the samples and tested for sensitivity testing to 7 antibiotics. Transmissible R plasmid was investigated in the resistant strains. Three hundred and fourteen strains (38.0%) were resistant to at least one of the 7 antibiotics tested. The prevalence of resistant strains was highest in the 20-day-old group (86.9%) and lowest in the 600-day-old group (8.8%), with a tendency of decrease with age. However, the prevalence was still 51.7% in the 500-day-old group, the second highest after the 20-day-old group. The rate of SA resistance was highest at 29.7%, followed by SM, CTC, KM and ABPC, in that order. SA resistance was the highest or second highest in all age groups, but CTC resistance was the highest in the 200-and 400-day-old groups, and ABPC and SA resistance was high in the 800-day-old group. The order of resistance rate among antibiotics varied slightly with age. Twenty-three resistance patterns were detected ranging from single-agent to 6-agent resistance. Sixteen types were observed in the 20-day-old group and 7 types or less in the other age groups. Multiple resistance type, defined as resistance to 2 or more antibiotics, accounted for approximately 70%. In the 20-day-old group, particularly, 90% were of the multiple resistance type and 6-agent resistance was seen only in this age group. Transmissible R plasmid was investigated in 314 resistant strains. Sixty strains (19.1%) possessed R plasmid, 47 strains of which were from the 500-day-old group. No R plasmid possessing strain was detected in the 300-, 400-or800-day-old group. 続きを見る
4.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
日越, 博信 ; 東江, 靖典 ; 平川, 守彦 ; Higoshi, Hironobu ; Agarie, Yasunori ; Hirakawa, Morihiko
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.7-12,  1996-12-01.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3723
概要: 沖縄県内の3酪農家で搾乳中の健康な乳用牛(ホルスタイン種),合計78頭の直腸便から分離した大腸菌652株について,7薬剤に対する感受性試験を行い,また耐性菌については伝達性Rプラスミドの検索も試みた。供試した7薬剤のいずれか1薬剤に耐性の大 腸菌は,全体では68株(10.4%)であった。酪農家別の耐性菌検出率では,C酪農家5.5%,A酪農家8.7%,B酪農家16.5%であった。薬剤別では,CTC耐性菌が9.5%で最も高く,他の薬剤に対する耐性菌は5%未満であったが,NA耐性菌は検出されなかった。3酪農家由来ともCTC耐性菌が最高であったが,B酪農家由来ではSMおよびSA耐性菌も若干高い値を示した。耐性型の種類は単剤型から6剤型まで10種類認められたが,4剤型は検出されなかった。また全体では,2剤以上の薬剤に耐性の多剤耐性型が過半数を占め,特にB酪農家由来では60%以上が多剤耐性型であり,6剤耐性型も本酪農家由来であった。一方,A及びC酪農家由来では60%以上が逆に単剤耐性型であった。耐性菌68株について,伝達性Rプラスミドの検索を行った結果,A酪農家由来の5株のみがRプラスミドを保有していた。この5株の伝達耐性型は,すべてCTC単剤型であった。<br />The sensitivity to seven antibiotics of 652 Escherichia coli strains isolated from the rectal contents of 78 healthy dairy cows (Holstein) from three dairy farms in Okinawa Prefecture was tested. Transmissible R plasmid was also examined in resistant strains. Sixty-eight E. coli strains (10.4%) were resistant to at least 1 of the 7 tested antibiotics. The resistant strain detection rate was 5.5% in Farm C, 8.7% in Farm A and 16.5% in Farm B. CTC resistance was the most common at 9.5%, resistance to the other antibiotics was less than 5% and NA resistance was not detected. CTC-resistant strains were the most common in all three farms. The proportions of SM-and SA-resistant strains were slightly higher in Farm B. There were 10 resistance patterns ranging from 1-agent to 6-agent resistance. Over half (51.5%) of all the resistant strains were resistant to 2 or more agents, particularly, over 60% of those from Farm B were multi-drug resistant. The six-agent resistant strain was derived from Farm B. In contrast, over 60% of the resistant strains from Farms A and C were resistant to one agent. Transmissible R plasmid was examined in 68 antibiotic resistant E. coli strains. R plasmid was detected only in 5 strains from Farm A, and in all 5 strains the transmissible resistance type was 1-agent type to CTC. 続きを見る
5.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
日越, 博信 ; 具志堅, 宏 ; 平川, 守彦 ; Higoshi, Hironobu ; Gushiken, Hiroshi ; Hirakawa, Morihiko
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.33-38,  1995-12-01.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3743
概要: 沖縄県内の3農場で肥育中の肉用牛, 64頭(和種25頭, 外産牛24頭, 乳F_1 15頭)の糞便から分離した大腸菌, 合計610株について薬剤感受性試験を行った。供試した7薬剤のいずれかに耐性であった菌株は, 136株(22.3%)であっ た。ウシの品種等別にみた耐性菌検出率は, 和種30.6%, 外産牛16.7%, 乳F_1 17.7%であり, 和種が高かった。薬剤別の耐性菌検出率は, 全体ではCTC耐性12.8%, SA耐性10.2%などが高く, 他の薬剤耐性はいずれも5%未満であった。耐性型の種類は単剤型から4剤型まで14種類認められたが, 外産牛では11種類, 和種では9種類, 乳F_1では6種類であった。しかし, 外産牛と乳F_1では単剤型が71&acd;62%を占めたのに対し, 和種では2剤以上に耐性の多剤耐性型が過半数を占めた。耐性菌における伝達性Rプラスミド保有菌の検出率は, 12.7%であった。ウシの品種等別では, 外産牛が20%, 乳F_1が11.5%, 和種が10%であった。またこれらの伝達耐性型はすべて単剤型であった。<br />Escherichia coli was isolated from 64 head of the beef cattle fattened in 3 farms in Okinawa Prefecture [25 Japanese Blacks, 24 imported steers fattened in Okinawa (imported cattle) and 15 offsprings from Holstein and Japanese Black (F_1 hybrid)]. A total of 610 strains of E. coli (235 from Japanese Blacks, 228 from imported cattle and 147 from F_1 hybrid) were isolated and antibiotic sensitivity tests to ABPC, CP, CTC, KM, SM, NA and SA were performed. Of the 610 isolates, 136 (22.3%) were resistant to one of the antibiotics tested. The antibiotic-resistant E. coli isolation rate was 30.6% in Japanese Blacks, 16.7% in imported cattle and 17.7% in F_1 hybrid. The overall antibiotic resistant rates were 12.8% and 10.2% for CTC and SA, respectively, and less than 5% for the other antibiotics. Fourteen antibiotic resistance patterns, ranging from single-agent to 4-agent resistance were detected : eleven patterns in imported cattle, 9 patterns in Japanese Blacks and 6 patterns in F_1 hybrid. While 62 to 71% of the strains isolated from imported cattle and F_1 hybrid were resistant to a single agent, over 50% of the strains from Japanese Blacks were resistant to 2 or more antibiotics. Transmissible R plasmid were examined in the antibiotic resistant E. coli strains. Of the 126 strains examined, 16 (12.7%) possessed transmissible R plasmids. They were found in 20% of the resistant strains from imported cattle, 11.5% of those from F_1 hybrid and 10% of those from Japanese Blacks. The type of transmissible resistance was all one-agent type. 続きを見る
6.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
日越, 博信 ; 山城, 倫子 ; 長田, 健司 ; Higoshi, Hironobu ; Yamashiro, Rinko ; Nagata, Kenji
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.147-153,  1994-12-01.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3760
概要: 食肉における薬剤耐性大腸菌の汚染状況を知る目的で, 沖縄県内の某と畜場でと殺解体直後の豚枝肉について調査を行った。試料は, 解体直後の6と体の豚枝肉から, 処理工程別に背割後, 洗浄後, 格付け前, 冷蔵庫内の4ヵ所で拭き取り法によって採取 した。また, 湯浸け水(脱毛のためにと体を浸漬する湯), 内臓液(内臓摘出時に出てくる液)についても調査した。これらの試料から合計301株の大腸菌を分離し, 7薬剤に対する感受性試験を行った。供試した大腸菌301株のうち195株(64.8%)が, いずれか1薬剤に耐性であった。枝肉処理の工程別にみた耐性菌の検出率は, 背割後74.1%, 洗浄後53.4%, 格付け前57.9%, 冷蔵庫内65.6%であった。内臓液由来では91.7%が耐性であったが, 湯浸け水からは大腸菌は分離されなかった。薬剤別には, CTC耐性が51.5%, SA耐性が35.5%, SM耐性が29.2%などの順に高く, これら3薬剤に対する耐性菌の検出順位は各試料とも同じであった。耐性型は, 単剤型から7剤型まで46種類認められ, その種類は処理工程が進むほど減少した。また全体では単剤型が29.7%, 3剤型が18.5%, 2剤型が17.4%, 4剤型が16.9%の順であったが, 2剤以上の薬剤に耐性の多剤耐性菌は, 背割後由来で検出率が最も高かった。耐性菌170株のうち9株(5.3%)がRプラスミド保有菌であり, 少なかった。<br />Immediate post-slaughtering contamination of pork carcasses with drug-resistant Escherichia coli was investigated in a slaughter house in Okinawa Prefecture. A total of 301 strains of E. coli were isolated from dressed pork carcasses. Drug sensitivity testing of these strains to seven antibiotics was performed. Among the 301 strains of E. coli tested, 195 strains (64.8%) exhibited drug resistance. Isolation rates of drug-resistant strains at various stages in processing were 74.1% after halving, 53.4% after cleaning, 57.9% befor grading and 65.6% in refrigeration. Strains isolated from visceral fluid samples were 91.7% drug-resistant. No E. coli was isolated from the hot water used for dehairing. The highest resistance found among the antibiotics tested was to CTC (51.5% of strains), SA (35.5%) and SM (29.2%). This same order of resistance was found in all samples. Forty six patterns of resistance were observed, ranging from single-agent to seven-agent resistance. The number of patterns of resistance decreased as the carcasses advanced through processing. For all strains isolated, 29.7% were resistant to one agent, 17.4% to two agents, 18.5% to three agents and 16.9% to four agents. Strains resistant to more than two agents were most commonly isolated from carcasses after halving. Only nine strains (5.3%) among the 170 drug-resistant strains possessed R plasmids. 続きを見る
7.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
日越, 博信 ; 長田, 健司 ; 山城, 倫子 ; 平川, 守彦 ; Higoshi, Hironobu ; Nagata, Kenji ; Yamashiro, Rinko ; Hirakawa, Morihiko
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.155-160,  1994-12-01.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3761
概要: 沖縄県における家畜糞便由来薬剤耐性大腸菌の検出状況の調査の一環として, 今回はと畜場で解体直後のウシの盲腸内容物由来について調査を行った。ウシの盲腸内容物試料は, 品種等別に外産牛20頭, 黒毛和種5頭, ホルスタイン種5頭, 計30頭から 採取し, 黒毛和種については農場で肥育中のウシ10頭の糞便も採取した。これらの試料から合計343株の大腸菌を分離し, 7薬剤に対する薬剤感受性試験を行った。供試した大腸菌343株のうち45株がいずれか1薬剤に耐性であり, その検出率は13.1%と低率であった。ウシの品種等別では, 外産牛が18.8%, 黒毛和種が6.8%, ホルスタイン種が6.7%であり, 外産牛で高かった。薬剤別の耐性菌は, 全体ではSA耐性24株, CTC耐性20株, KM耐性14株などが比較的多かった。外産牛ではSA及びCTC耐性が多く, またホルスタイン種では各薬剤に対する耐性菌が検出されたが, 黒毛和種ではKM及びSA耐性のみであった。耐性型は, 全体では12種類認められたが, 外産牛では単剤型から4剤型まで9種類, 黒毛和種では単剤型のみ2種類, ホルスタイン種では6剤型と7剤型の2種類であつた。耐性菌におけるRプラスミド保有菌は4株あり, すべて外産牛由来であった。<br />As part of the study of the incidence of drug resistance of Escherichia coli of fecal origin in liverstock, the drug resistance of E. coli isolated from the cecal contents of cattle was studied. Cecal contents were collected at a slaughter house in Okinawa Prefecture during the slaughtering and dressing of 30 beef cattle including 20 imported cattle (imported, then fattened in the Prefecture), five Japanese blacks and five Holsteins. Fecal samples were also collected from 10 Japanese blacks being fattened on a farm. A total of 343 strains of E. coli were isolated from these samples. Drug sensitivity testing of these strains to seven antibiotics was performed. Of the 343 strains, 45 were resistant to at least one antibiotic, with a low isolation rate of 13.1%. The isolation rate of drug-resistant strains was 18.8% in imported cattle, 6.8% in Japanese blacks and 6.7% in Holsteins. The highest rate was found in imported cattle. Resistance to SA, CTC and KM was relatively high, with 24 strains resistant to SA, 20 to CTC and 14 to KM. Many SA-and CTC-resistant strains were isolated from the imported cattle. Strains resistant to all antibiotics tested were isolated from the Holsteins, while only KM- or SA-resistant strains were isolated from the Japanese blacks. Twelve different patterns of resistance were observed in all the strains. Nine patterns of resistance, including one- to four-agent resistance, were detected in imported cattle. Two patterns of single-agent resistance were found in Japanese blacks and two patterns of six-and seven-agent resistance were found in Holsteins. Attempts were made to detect R plasmid in the resistant strains. It was detected in only 4 strains, all isolated from imported cattle. 続きを見る