1.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
川満, 芳信 ; 川元, 恵子 ; 渡慶次, 努 ; 永冨, 成紀 ; 野瀬, 昭博 ; 村山, 盛一 ; Kawamitsu, Yoshinobu ; Kawamoto, Keiko ; Tokeshi, Tsutomu ; Nagatomi, Shigeki ; Nose, Akihiro ; Murayama, Seiichi
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.1-16,  2000-12-01.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3413
概要: 本報では, セイロンベンケイソウにガンマ線を照射することで, 光合成型がCAMからC_3型へ変更する突然変異誘発を試みた。以下はその結果の要約である。1) 培養においてセイロンベンケイソウの葉片は, 2,4-D, BA各0.5ppmを添加し た培地において脱分化し, NAA, BA各0.5ppmを添加した培地において多芽形成した。2) コントロール区に対し各処理区において変動係数が増大したが, 特に培養+照射区に広い変異が見られ, 培養と照射を組み合わせることで変異率を高めることができた。3) &xutri;リンゴ酸については, 5Gyの急照射においてコントロール個体の約半分の値を示す個体が得られた。4) 気孔密度は培養+照射区, 及び培養+コルヒチン区において減少傾向を示し, 照射のみの区において増加傾向を示した。5) 孔辺細胞長は培養+照射区, 及び培養+コルヒチン区において増加傾向を示し, 照射のみの区において減少傾向を示した。<br />In this experiment, the mutagenesis in which the photosynthesis type changed from crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) to the C_3 photosynthesis type using gamma-ray acute irradiation in kalanchoe pinnata, Ceylon Benkei, was tried. The result is shown as following; 1. It dedifferentiated in the culture medium in which the blade of the Ceylon Benkei added 0.5ppm of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and benzylaminopurine (BA) in the culture, and it was formed in multibud in the culture medium which added 0.5ppm of naphthalenacetic acid (NAA) and BA. 2. Though the coefficient of variation increased for the control ward in each plant stage, there was the mutation which especially, was large in the culture + irradiation, and it was possible to raise the mutation rate by combining the culture with the irradiation. 3. On Δ malic acid, the individual which showed half value of control plant was obtained by the acute irradiation of 5Gy. 4. Stomatal frequency showed the decline in culture + irradiation and culture + colchicine, and the increase tendency was shown in the irradiation only. 5. Guard cell length showed the increase tendency in culture + irradiation and culture + colchicine, and the decline in the irradiation only. 続きを見る
2.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
川満, 芳信 ; 渡慶次, 努 ; 川元, 恵子 ; 永冨, 成紀 ; 野瀬, 昭博 ; 村山, 盛一 ; Kawamitsu, Yoshinobu ; Tokeshi, Tsutomu ; Kawamoto, Keiko ; Nagatomi, Shigeki ; Nose, Akihiro ; Murayama, Seiichi
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.17-28,  2000-12-01.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3414
概要: 本実験では, CAM植物の光合成効率を高めるためにC_3型光合成への変更の可能性を培養段階での昼夜温度の逆転から検討し, 更に, ガンマ線緩照射による変異個体の作出について検討した。得られた結果の概要は以下の通りである。1. セイロンベンケ イソウの培養植物は, 明期において活発なCO_2吸収を示すC_3型光合成的ガス代謝を行いながらも, CAM植物特有のリンゴ酸の日変化が見られCAM cycling型光合成を行った。2. 培養段階においても高夜温条件によりリンゴ酸蓄積量が減少し, C_3型光合成に近づいた。3. カルス分化時から高夜温で生育させた培養植物体は光合成型を変更したが, 順化させると本来のCAM型光合成が回復した。4. 昼夜のリンゴ酸含量の差(△リンゴ酸)におけるガンマ線照射の効果についてはほとんど影響がなかった。5. ガンマ線照射個体は気孔密度において増加傾向を示し, 孔辺細胞長においては影響がなかった。また, 培養を経由した植物体において気孔密度は減少傾向を示し, 孔辺細胞長は肥大する傾向を示した。<br />In this paper, the possibility of the change to the C_3 type photosynthesis was examined from the inversion of the daytime and nighttime temperature in the culture stage in order to raise photosynthesis efficiency of a CAM plant (Ceylon Benkei, Kalanchoe pinnata), and in addition, the production of the mutation by gamma-ray chronic irradiation was examined. Outlines of the result obtained are as follows; 1. Culture plants of the Ceylon Bennkei performed CAM cycling which showed the daily variation of malic acid which is peculiar for a CAM plant, while C_3 type gas exchange which shows the active CO_2 absorption in the light period was done. 2. The malic acid accumulation decreased by the high night temperature condition in the culture stage, and it approached the C_3 type photosynthesis. 3. Cultured plants which were made to grow at the high night temperature from the callus differentiation made the photosynthesis type change, and original CAM type photosynthesis recovered, when the plants acclimatized. 4. There was seldom the effect of the gamma-ray irradiation for the difference (Δ malic acid) in malic acid content between daytime and nighttime. 5. Stomatal frequency of the gamma-ray irradiating plants showed the increase tendency, and it was not effective at guard cell length. In addition, stomatal frequency showed the decline in the plants which went through the culture, and guard cell length showed hypertrophying tendency. 続きを見る
3.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
川満, 芳信 ; 北原, 良太 ; 野瀬, 昭博 ; Kawamitsu, Yoshinobu ; Kitahara, Ryota ; Nose, Akihiro
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.9-22,  1995-12-01.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3741
概要: 高濃度の根系NaCl条件下で生育する3種ヒルギを用いて, 徐々にNaCl濃度を上げた場合と, 急激上げた場合の処理を行い, そのときの葉のガス交換と水ポテンシャルを測定しNaCl耐性の違いを検討した。得られた結果の要約は以下の通りである。1 ) 徐々にNaCl濃度を上げたときの3樹種の光合成速度及び気孔伝導度は, それぞれ異なったNaCl濃度において低下した(図1,2)。また, 光合成速度と気孔伝導度との間には高い正の相関関係が認められ(図3), 気孔による支配が大きいことが明らかとなった。処理後11週目の光-光合成曲線は, NaCl濃度の変化に伴い3樹種とも異なる反応を示した(図5,6)。2) 急激にNaCl処理を行ったときの光合成速度及び気孔伝導度と葉の水ポテンシャルとの関係から(図7,8,10), メヒルギ及びオヒルギでは光合成速度の急速な低下がみられたが, ヤエヤマヒルギは葉の水ポテンシャルが-3.0MPaに至るまで低下しなかった(図7)。光合成速度と気孔伝導度との間には, 徐々に処理した場合と同様に高い正の相関関係が認められた(図9)。3) 3種ヒルギの葉の水ポテンシャルと水利用効率との関係を検討したところ, ヤエヤマヒルギは水ポテンシャルの低下にともなって水利用効率が上昇した(図11)。4) 調査した3種のヒルギの気孔密度は100個・(mm)^<-2>で, CAM植物に近い特性を有し, 気孔は葉の裏面に分布していた(表2)。以上より, ヤエヤマヒルギは大きい気孔を少なく有し, 高濃度のNaClに耐えることのできる細胞オルガネラを持つことが, 高NaCl条件下での生育を可能にしていると考えられる。<br />To make clarify the responses of photosynthesis and leaf conductance to NaCl concentration in Okinawan mangroves, we measured the leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential under slow and acute stress conditions. Materials used were Mehirugi (Kandelia candel), Ohirugi (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza), and Yaeyamahirugi (Rhyizophora stylosa). The results obtained are summarized as follows; Photosynthesis and leaf conductance in three mangroves were decreased with increases in NaCl concentration. However, the decreasing rate with time was different in species. Yaeyamahirugi exhibited slight changes in photosynthesis, in other words, maintained the high photosynthetic rate even under severe stress conditions. Photosynthesis in Mehirugi was decreased pronouncedly as compared with other species. Ohirugi had a intermediate responsiveness to NaCl concentration. When leaf water potential was decreased by increasing NaCl concentration in root medium, photosynthesis in Mehirugi and Ohirugi was decreased. On the other hand, photosynthesis of Yaeyamahirugi was not changed with lowing leaf water potential. In addition, the water use efficiency in Yaeyamahirugi was uniquely increased with decreasing leaf water potential. 続きを見る
4.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
川満, 芳信 ; 比屋根, 真一 ; 野瀬, 昭博 ; Kawamitsu, Yoshinobu ; Hiyane, Shinichi ; Nose, Akihiro
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.127-137,  1994-12-01.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3758
概要: サトウキビ属における各種測定環境条件に対する光合成反応を測定することにより, 最も高い光合成能力を発揮できる最適条件を決定した。結果は以下の通りである。1.光-光合成反応は不飽和型との飽和型が混在していた。なお, 野生種であるS.spont aneumが全体的に高く, 中でもJw66の光合成速度は58.4μmo・m^<-2>・s^<-1>とかなり高い値を示した(Fig.1-A, B)。2.蒸散速度, 気孔伝導度は共に光強度の変化に対して不飽和型を示した。なお, 野性種は蒸散速度, 気孔伝導度とも高い値を示した(Fig.1-C, D)。3.温度-光合成反応の結果, 多くのサトウキビにおける最適温度は, 35℃付近に見られた。それに対し, Badilaは40℃に最適温度を示し, Jw47においては最適は認められなかった(Fig.2-A, B)。4.測定時の葉面飽差変化に対する光合成速度への影響は, 多くの供試材料において変化が見られなかったのに対し, BadilaとNCo310は, 高葉面飽差域において低下が認められた(Fig.3-A, B)。5.蒸散速度は, 多くの供試材料において葉面飽差の増加するに伴い直線的に上昇するフィードバック型を示した。これに対し, BadilaとNCo310は, 高葉面飽差域において蒸散速度の低下が見られるフィードホワード型を示した(Fig.4-A, B)。従って, サトウキビ属は空気湿度の変化に対して多様に反応しているものと推察された。<br />We measured the responses of photosynthesis and leaf conductance to environmental conditions, such as photon flux density, leaf temperature and humidity, in sugarcane plants. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions and then gas exchange measurements were conducted under artificial light conditions by using the infrared gas analysis system. Leaf temperature and humidity (vapor pressure difference) in the assimilation chamber were controlled precisely by using a personal computer. Photosynthetic light response curves showed saturated and unsaturated curves up to 2200μmol・m^<-2>・s^<-1> photon flux density in sugarcane plants used. Optimum temperatures for photosynthesis under high photon flux density were at around 35℃ in most plants, whereas 40℃ for Badila. In addition, Jw 47 showed no optimum temperature up to 45℃. There were no changes in photosynthesis as vapor pressure difference was increased up to 4kPa. However, Badila and NCo310 showed a decreases in photosynthesis at high vapor pressure difference. 続きを見る
5.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
安谷屋, 信一 ; 野瀬, 昭博 ; Adaniya, Shinichi ; Nose, Akihiro
出版情報: 1993-03.  安谷屋信一
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/16287
概要: 平成2年度~平成3年度科学研究費補助金(一般研究(C))研究成果報告書<br />研究概要:本研究の目的は,細胞キメラ利用によるワケギの育種の可能性を検討することである.ワケギ及びネギの細胞キメラ(4-2-2,2-4-4)及び倍 数体(2倍体,4倍体)を植物材料とし,以下の事項について検討した.1)細胞当たりの仁の数による倍数性検定法,2)細胞キメラ体の増殖とキメラ性の安定性,3)気孔特性,4)生育特性,5)光合成特性. 1.ネギの細胞キメラ体及び倍数体では,ネギのL1及びL2の倍数性は,それぞれ孔辺細胞及び葉肉細胞当たりの仁の最大数で検定できた.ワケギのL1及び L2の倍数性も,それぞれ孔辺細胞及び葉肉細胞当たりの仁の最大数または最頻値によって決定できた. 2.コルヒチン処理当代のキメラ性は,圃場条件下での増殖時に激しく変化した.しかし,育成後3年を経過した4-2-2及び2-4-4のキメラ体は安定的であった.0.1~1.0ppm BA+0.5ppm NAA添加の寒天培地で,キメラ性は大きく変化した.しかし,0~0.125ppm BA添加培地で,キメラ性の変化はなかった. 3.4-2-2及び4倍体は,2倍体及び2-4-4より有意に低い気孔密度と大きい気孔を有していた.4倍体及び4-2-2の単位葉面積当たりの気孔面積は,2倍体及び2-4-4より大きかった. 4.秋季には2-4-4の収量が高く,冬季には4-2-2の収量が増加した. 5.圃場条件下で,4倍体及び4-2-2の気孔伝導度,蒸散速度及び光合成速度は,2倍体及び2-4-4より高くな高くなった. 以上の結果より,秋季における2-4-4の多収性は,高い耐乾性によるものであり,また冬季における4-2-2の多収性は,高い光合成能力によってもたらされたものと推察される.したがって,ワケギの育種は,細胞キメラを利用することによって促進するであろう.<br />研究概要:The purpose of this studies is to define a possibility of improving the phenotype of Allium wakegi Araki by using its cytochimeras. The cytochimeras (4-2-2; 2-4-4) and the polyploids (2-2-2; 4-4-4) of A.wakegi and/or those of A. fistulosum L. were used for the studies, and the following subjects were investigated: 1) a method for analyzing chimerisum by the number of nucleoli per cell; 2) cytochimeral stability during propagation; 3) stomata and 4) growth characteristics; and 5) photosynthetic capability. 1. In the polyploids and cytochimeras of A. fistulosum, the ploidies of L1 and L2 could be easily identified by the maximum number of nucleoli per epidermal and mesophyll cell, respectively. While, in those plants of A. wakegi, ploidies in the layers could be also determined by the maximum number or a modal number of nucleoli per epidermal and mesophyll cell. 2. The first generation of colchicine treated plants frequently varied with their chimeral nature during in vivo propagation, whereas the cytochimeras cultivated in vivo for three years after the treatment were stable for their chimerisum. On the medium containing 0.1 - 1.0 ppm BA and 0.5 ppm NAA, the polyploids and the cytochimeras drastically changed their chimerisum during in vitro propagation, but did not on the medium containing a range of 0 - 0.125 ppm BA. 3. The 4-2-2 and 4-4-4 plants had lower stomatal density and larger sized stomata than the 2-2-2 and the 2-4-4. Total stomatal pore area/mm2, which was obtained by multiplying stomatal density by stomatal size, was larger in the 4-4-4 and the 4-2-2 than in the 2-2-2 and the 2-4-4. 4. The 2-4-4 showed the highest yield under warm autumn conditions, while the 4-2-2 achieved the highest productivity under cool winter conditions. 5. Under the cool winter conditions, a stomatal conductance, a transpiration rate and a photosynthetic rate were higher in the 4-4-4 and the 4-2-2 than in the 2-2-2 and the 2-4-4. From the above results, it is suggested that the highest productivity of the 2-4-4 under the warm conditions is attributed to its higher draft tolerance, and that the highest yield of the 4-2-2 under the cool conditions is due to its higher photosynthetic capacity under the cool conditions. The breeding of A. wakegi is, therefore, most likely activated by the use of the cytochimeras. 続きを見る
6.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
村山, 盛一 ; ウディン, モスレム ; 野瀬, 昭博 ; 川満, 芳信 ; Murayama, Seiichi ; Uddin, Moslem S.M. ; Nose, Akihiro ; Kawamitsu, Yoshinobu
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.1-6,  1990-12-05.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3853
概要: 早植,適性な畦幅,深耕,標肥栽培,補植,堆肥施用,除草,培土,鍬によ地際刈り及びかんがい栽培した場合サトウキビの収量形質にどのような影響を及ぼすかについて検討した。その結果,早植区,深耕区,標肥栽培区,補植区,堆肥施用区および潅水区では発芽 率及び単位面積当り分けつ数が対照区(バングラディシュにおける平均的農家の栽培の実状に合わせた試験区)より有意に優れていた。原料茎数の最高値は潅水区において得られ(68,900本/ha),次いで早植区が多かった。しかし,収量の最高値は標肥栽培区で得られ(54.00t/ha),対照区より37.80%の増収であった。一方,対照区では最低収量(39.20t/ha)を示した。シュクロース含量は早植区と堆肥施用区の10.90%が最も高かった。また,堆肥施用区では最も高い産糖量(5.83t/ha)を示し,対照区に比べて48.72%の増収であった。以上のように,サトウキビの収量形質は栽培法の違いによって大きな影響を受ける。<br />Ten agronomical practices such as early planting, optimum row spacing, deep trench, recommended rates of fertilizer, gap filling, use of organic manure, weed control, earthing up, harvesting by spade at ground level and irrigation were compared with control for their effects on yield components of sugarcane. Different practices showed their effects differently in varying degrees. Among them early planting, deep trench, recommended rates of fertilizer, gap filling, use of organic manure and irrigation showed significantly higher germination and tillers over control. The highest number of millable cane (68900/ha) was produced in the irrigated plot, followed by early planting (64300/ha), but the highest yield of cane (54.00t/ha) was produced in the recommended rates of fertilizer treated plot (37.80% yield was increased over control), while the lowest cane yield (39.20t/ha) was obtained in the control plot. Early planting produced cane yield 49.90t/ha (27.30% increased yield over control), followed by irrigation (48.60t/ha), where 24.00% yield was increased over control. The highest sucrose content was found (10.90%) in early planted cane and organic manure applied cane, followed by recommended rates of fertilizer applied cane (10.80%). The recommended rates of fertilizer also produced the highest tonnage of sugar (5.83t/ha, which was 48.72% increased yield over control), followed by early planted cane (5.54t/ha, where 41.33% increased yield was found over control). This investigation indicates that agronomical practices have positive effects on yield components of sugarcane. 続きを見る
7.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
野瀬, 昭博 ; 仲間, 操 ; 宮里, 清松 ; 村山, 盛一 ; Nose, Akihiro ; Nakama, Misao ; Miyazato, Kiyomatsu ; Murayama, Seiichi
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.1-10,  1989-12-05.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3870
概要: 作物のガス交換測定系において用いる低コスト情報処理システムを試作した。コストの低減を計るために,簡易型A/D変換器(ネオログ社,PCN-1209-1)を用い,出力用と入力用のGPIBをシステムから除外した。A/D変換器の入力特性から,本シス テムでは温度の測定にサーミスタ(φ=1.00mm, 宝工業KXK67-1)を用いた。しかし,3連の同化箱を用いて測定を行うのに必要な12本のサーミスタ価格を含めても,試作したシステムの価格は,既製品のA/D変換システムの1/3&acd;1/4であった。用いたサーミスタの出力電位と温度の関係は,0&acd;40℃で直線性を有していた(図4)。試作した情報処理システムを用いて,サトウキビ葉身の温度-光合成反応を測定した。得られた結果は高温域に至適温度を有するというC_4光合成特有のものであった。本測定において,試作したシステムを用い葉温を効率よく,かつ正確に制御することができた(図7)。<br />A simple data processing system for gas exchange measurement of crop plant was produced as a trial product in a laboratory low cost. In order to save the cost, a simple analog-digital (A/D) conversion board (Neolog, PCN-1209-01) was used, but two general purpose interface bus (GPIB) for computer date input and output were excluded in this system. On account of the input range of A/D board, thermister (φ1.00mm, Takara KXK-67) was used for temperature measurements. Including twelve thermisters necessary for a three assimilation chamber system, however, the cost for the trial product was only about one third to a quarter of the price for articles on the market. The thermister in the trial product gave a linear relation between temperature and electric potential in the 10℃ to 40℃ temperature range (Fig. 7). Using the above simple date processing system, photosynthesis-temperature response curves on sugar cane (Saccharamu officinarum, cv. NCo 310) leaf were examined. Curves obatinad in the experiment exhidited a typical response of C_4 photosynthesis in which the optimal was observed at high temperature of 35℃. In the examination, leaf temerature was controlled efficiently and accurately by the system (Fig. 7). 続きを見る
8.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
仲間, 操 ; 野瀬, 昭博 ; 江橋, 賢治 ; 宮里, 清松 ; 村山, 盛一 ; Nakama, Misao ; Nose, Akihiro ; Ebashi, Kenji ; Miyazato, Kiyomatsu ; Murayama, Seiichi
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.113-120,  1988-12-05.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3899
概要: サトウキビ品種NCo310を用い, 土壌水分欠乏が給水制限解除後の乾物生産特性に及ぼす影響を調査した。植付け後77日目のサトウキビをpF2.5,3.5,3.8,4.2の土壌水分下で2週間にわたって育て, その後土壌水分をpF2.5に維持した ときの生育の様相を22日間にわたって追跡調査した。得られた結果の概要は以下の通りである。1)pF4.2区では生育の回復は殆ど認められなかった(図1,2,3,4)。2)pF3.8区とpF3.5区では水分処理解除後に茎重や葉重について顕著な回復を示し(図3), 特にpF3.8区では最上位完全展開葉々位の増加や青葉数などの葉身形質に回復現象がみられた(図2)。3)土壌水分処理解除後, 相対生長率(RGR)はpF3.8区で高かった。また, pF3.8区の高いRGRは高い純同化率(NAR)によっていることが推察された(表1)。4)土壌水分処理解除後のRGRの回復は, 同化器官の量(LWR)よりもNARの増加によっていることが明らかになった。更に, その時のRGRやNARは梢頭部の含水率と高い負の相関を示した(表2)。<br />Using sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L. c. v. NCo 310), the effects of soil moisture deficit on characteristics of matter production process after releasing the restriction of water supply were examined. Young sugar cane plants of the 77th day after planting were experienced for two weeks under soil moisture conditions of pF 2.5,3.5,3.8,and 4.3. After the treatments, the time courses of matter production process were investigated for 22 days, re-setting the soil moisture to pF 2.5. The following results were obtained : After re-setting to enough soil moisture condition, the growth of pF 4.2 block could not recover (Fig. 1,2,3,and 4). At blocks of pF 3.5 and pF 3.8,however, the dry weight of stalk and leaves were recovered sufficiently after re-watering (Fig. 3). Especially, leaf position of upper most full expanded leaf and number of leaves were recovered rapidly at block of pF 3.8 (Fig. 2). After re-watering, relative growth rate (RGR) of whole plant included roots showed high at block of pF 3.8. It was appeared that these high RGR were resulted from high net assimilation rate (NAR) (Table 1). In this study, RGR and NAR after re-watering showed high negarive correlations to mean water contents of spindle (Table 2). 続きを見る
9.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
野瀬, 昭博 ; 仲間, 操 ; 宮里, 清松 ; 村山, 盛一 ; Nose, Akihiro ; Nakama, Misao ; Miyazato, Kiyomatsu ; Murayama, Seiichi
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.1-10,  1987-12-05.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3904
概要: 栽植密度が,夏植え一次株出しサトウキビの生産に及ぼす影響を2種類の土壌条件下で乾物生産の面から調査した。供試したサトウキビ品種はNCo310,栽植密度は株間40cm×畦間135cm(標準区),同20cm×135cm( 密植区)の2種類,土壌は泥灰岩土壌とサンゴ石灰岩土壌である。得られた結果の概要は以下の通りである。1)2月の収量調査では,泥灰岩土壌畑標準区で8.1ton/10a,Brix17.0度,同密植区で7.6ton/10a,16.7度,サンゴ石灰岩土壌密植区で6.2ton/10a,16.8度と,原料茎収量に密植の効果は認められなかった。2)単位土地面積当り総重あるいは茎重は,泥灰岩土壌畑においては2種類の栽植区で2月の最終調査日まで増大し続けた。しかし,サンゴ石灰岩土壌畑において総重は12月から2月にかけて減少,茎重は定常値に達した(図1)。3)単位土地面積当りの茎数は12月に密植区で12.5&acd;13.6本/m^2と多くなるものの収穫期及び生育の前期では殆ど差がなかった(表1)。4)個体群生長速度(CGR)は,6&acd;10月という夏季に泥灰岩土壌標準区で18&acd;17g/m^2/dayを示し,サンゴ石灰岩土壌密植区で8&acd;10月のCGRが同様になるものの,密植区のCGRは小さかった(図3)。5)葉面積指数(LAI)は,何れの区においても2.5を越すことがなく,LAIに密植の効果が現れなかった(図3)。6)CGRは純同化率(NAR)と有為な正の相関(r=0.914)をしめし,LAIとは無相関であった。7)8月下旬での群落吸光係数はLAIが-1.3&acd;-3.1の範囲でLAIの増大にともない負の大きい値となった(図7)。8)乾物の器官への分配率は,6月から2月の調査期間を通し,茎への分配が60&acd;80%と常に高い値を示した(図4)。<br />The effect of planting density on the growth of the first ratoon crop of summer planted sugar cane was investigated with the field of two soil types on aspects of dry matter production. Sugar cane variety used in the experiments was NCo 310 (Succharum officinarum L.). Planting density was 40cm×135cm for standard block, and 20cm×135cm for dense planting block both in intrarow spacing and row width; and the soil type was marl soil and coral limestone soil. Results obtained are as follows : In this study dense planting did not affect the cane yield. For example, the final cane yield and brix for standard block and dense planting block both in marl soil field were 8.1 tons per 10 a and 17 degreee, 7.6 tons per 10 a and 16.7 degree, respectively. On the other hand, those for dense planting block in coral limestone soil were 6.2 tons per 10 a and 16.7 degree. In the experiments in marl soil, total dry weight including dead part and dry stalk weight both per unit land area kept increasing in the two planting density blocks until the last experiment day in February. In the coral limestone soil, however, the total dry weight was decreasing in the dense planting block during December and February, while dry stalk weight kept a constnt value in the same block and during the same period. The number of stalks per unit land area in December was larger in dense planting block by 2.5 to 3.6 per one m^2 than in standard block, but there was not much difference at harvest time and in the first part of growth stage (Table 1). Crop growth rate (CGR) of standard block in marl soil showed the value of 17-18g/m^2/day during the summer period of June to October, and that of dense planting block in coral limestone soil was almost the same value of 17-18g/m^2/day during August and October. In other periods except to the above mentioned periods, CGR was small (Fig.3). Leaf area index (LAI) in each block did not exceed 2.5,and the effect of planting density on LAI was not found (Fig.3). CGR showed a statistically significant positive correlation to net assimilation rate (NAR) with r=0.914,but it did not to LAI. Community light extinction coefficient (K) in the last ten days of August gave large negative values as LAI increased to the range of 1.3-3.1 (Fig.7). Distribution rate of dry matter into the stalk kept high value of 60 to 80 percent throughout the experiment period of June to February (Fig.4). 続きを見る
10.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
仲間, 操 ; 野瀬, 昭博 ; 宮里, 清松 ; 村山, 盛一 ; Nakama, Misao ; Nose, Akihiro ; Miyazato, Kiyomatsu ; Murayama, Seiichi
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.187-198,  1987-12-05.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3916
概要: 基盤整備直後の泥灰岩土壌畑(琉球大学農学部附属農場4番圃場)において, サトウキビ(品種NCo310)を春植えし, その後一次, 二次株出し栽培下における生育の様相を追跡調査した。得られた結果の概要は以下の通りである。1) 各栽培年の最終収 量は, 新植から株出しと耕作年次の進展にともない低下した。単位土地面積当りの総乾物量は, 調査期間を通して漸増し, その程度は新植で最も大きかった(図1)。2) 12月の生育量を基準にして, それ以前の生育量を相対値で表すと, 新値と株出し栽培で生育経過に明らかな違いが認められた(図4,図5)。特に, 株出し栽培では新植にくらべ初期生育が優れていることが認められた。3) 個体群生長速度(CGR)は, 新植の9&acd;10月に42g/m^2/dayと極めて高い値を示し, 株出し下では最大CGRが15&acd;17と低かった(図2)。4) 調査期間を通しての生長関数の相互の関係は, CGRがNARと密接に関係し, LAIとは余り関係しないことを示していた(表2)。5) 本研究で調査したサトウキビにおいて, 茎への乾物の分配率が調査期間を通して高く, 生育の後期にも茎への乾物の蓄積が行われていることが明らかになった(図9)。6) 葉面積を未抽出葉の展開部も含めて評価すると, LAIでは最大23%, 葉乾物重では18%, 増大することが明らかになった(図10)。<br />Using experiments in marl soil field right after the land consolidation (Field No. 4,Experimantral Farm, University of the Ryukyus), changes in growth characeristics of the first crop. first ratoon crop, and second ratoon crop of spring planted sugar cane, Saccharum officinarum L. var. NCo 310,were examined. Outlines of the result obtained were as follows : The final cane yield of earch crop decreased in the order of first crop, first ratoon crop, and second ratoon crop, that is, 5.5,4.6,and 3.5 tons per 10a, respectively. For each crop, the total dry matter including dead part per unit land erea graduarally increaed through all the experimental period, and the increaseing rate was greatest for the first crop (Fig. 1 and Fig. 7). When compared to the growth in respective December, the relative growth in the month preceeding to each December showed a clear difference in the growth process between the first crop and ratoon crops (Fig. 4 and Fig. 5). Growth in the early growth stage was larger in ratoon crops than in the first crop. The highest crop growth rate (CGR) of 42.3g/m^2/day, was observed between September and October in the first crop (Fig. 7). Max. CGR in the ratoonings was low, showing 17.9 and 15.8g/m^2/day for the first and second ratooning, respectively. The interrelation of growth parameters throughout the present experimental period showed a significant relation between CGR and NAR, but the relation between CGR and LAI was not significant (Table 2). The dry matter distribution ratio in the stalk for the cane in the present study was high throughout the experimental period, and it was clearly found that the accumulation of dry matter in the stalk was preferentially done even in the last stage of growth (Fig. 9). When leaf area was evaluated by including the expanded parts of not fully expanded leaves on the top of stalk, it was shown that LAI and dry weight of the leaf increased by 23 and 18 percent, respectively (Fig. 10). 続きを見る