1.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
安田, 正昭 ; 上地, 玄作 ; Yasuda, Masaaki ; Uechi, Gensaku
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.73-81,  1985-12-02.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/3940
概要: 豆腐ようの品質の安定化に役立てる基礎的知見を得るために紅麹菌における色素の生産条件, 抽出条件及びその基本的な諸性質を検討した。供試菌株(Monascus sp. No. 3403)の色素生産性はウルチ米を加圧蒸煮して製麹する方法が普通蒸煮 法によるものに比べて約3倍増大した。紅麹から色素を抽出する溶媒は, 赤色系色素ではメチルアルコール, 黄色系色素では酢酸が最も抽出効果が高かった。しかし, 食品衛生上安全な抽出溶媒としてここではエチルアルコールを選択し, 紅麹から色素の抽出条件を検討した。即ち, その色素の抽出は80%エチルアルコール溶液で約2時間行うことにより最大の効果を上げることができた。本色素はpH安定性(pH2-10で7日間放置後の色素残存率が70%以上), 熱安定性(70℃で24時間後の色素残存率が86%)に優れていた。本色素の光安定性は過酸化水素水の添加により低下したが, アスコルビン酸の添加によりわずかながら増大した。紅麹水溶性色素の食品素材に対する染着性は80%エチルアルコール可溶性色素のそれに比べて高かった。水溶性色素はミルクカゼイン, 小麦粉等に, 80%エチルアルコール可溶性色素は卵アルブミン, グルテン等によく染着された。豆腐ようの紅麹色素量は熟成過程に伴って増大するが, 漬込み後8&acd;12週間目でほぼ一定の値を示した。<br />Beni koji prepared by growing Monascus on steamed rice is an important material for the production of tofuyo (red soybean cheese). Color of the product is always greatly affected by the quality of the koji. In order to find the culture conditions required for improvements of the red pigment production by Monascus sp. No. 3403,the organism was grown on the steamed rice. The highest production of the pigment was obtained by employing autoclaved non-glutinous rice. Although the most effective solvent for the extraction of red pigment from the koji was methyl alcohol, we chose ethyl alcohol as the extractive solvent due to its safety in view of the food sanitation. The pigment was extracted with 80% ethyl alcohol solution at 25℃ for 2hrs in the dark place. The pigment was stable against heat and pH (from 2 to 10), but unstable with light. Metal ions such as Ca^<2+>, Mg^<2+>, Zn^<2+>, and Ba^<2+> did not affect its color. While the pigment was stable against ascorbic acid, it faded with hydrogen peroxide. The pigment was a good dye stuff; the water soluble pigment had a great affinity to milk casein, wheat flour, and tofu, while the ethyl alcohol soluble one had an affinity to egg albumin and wheat gluten. The amount of Monascus pigment in tofuyo increased through the aging process and became almost constant for 2-3 months after ripening. 続きを見る
2.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
安田, 正昭 ; 上地, 玄作 ; 宮里, 興信 ; Yasuda, Masaaki ; Uechi, Gensaku ; Miyazato, Koshin
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.111-118,  1981-11-30.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/4054
概要: 紅麹菌や黄麹菌を蒸米に生育させた米麹は豆腐[ヨウ]製造に際して重要な原料である。本論文においては豆腐[ヨウ]製造に適した黄麹の製造方法について, 特に酵素活性の面から検討した。麹の品温は種菌接種後20時間目で上昇した。麹の水分含量は30%前 後であり, 酸度は極めて低かった。黄麹の製麹については76時間付近で出麹とすることが望ましいことが明らかになった。加圧蒸煮法により蒸米を調製することにより麹中の酵素活性が著しく増大した。特にウルチ米を加圧蒸煮して製麹した麹においては普通蒸煮法による場合に比べてα-アミラーゼ活性が5倍, S-アミラーゼ, プロテアーゼ活性がともに3倍に増大することが明らかになった。黄麹のS-アミラーゼおよびα-アミラーゼは食塩およびアルコールに対する安定性がすぐれていることがわかった。<br />The rice-koji which is Monascus or Aspergillus oryzae grown on the steamed rice is important material for TOFUYO manufacturing. In this paper, the enzyme activities of α-amylase, saccharifying amylase, acid protease and acidity of the koji (mold rice) produced with Aspergillus oryzae as seed koji are described. The kinds of rice and the method of steaming which are suitable for koji making are also described. In the course of koji making, the temperature of the koji was increased remarkably 20hr after inoculation of the seeds. And so, it was controlled at around 34℃ by a mixing calledTeire. The koji was found to have about 30% of moisture and a very low acidity (0.05). An appropriate incubation period of koji making was 76hr after the seed koji was inoculated. In the course of koji making, the formation of enzymes in Ki-Koji was depended upon the kinds of rice and the methods of steaming. It was found that the enzyme activities of the koji which was made by the non-glutinous rice treated with autoclave were increased markedly. In this case, it was observed that α-amylase, saccharifying amylase and protease activities of the koji were 5-, 3- and 3- folds, respectively, greater than that of koji making with the rice prepared from the method of general steaming. Saccharifying amylase and α-amylase of Ki-Koji showed considerable alcohol-, and salt-tolerance. 続きを見る
3.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
宮里, 興信 ; 安田, 正昭 ; 上地, 玄作 ; Miyazato, Koshin ; Yasuda, Masaaki ; Uechi, Gensaku
出版情報: 琉球大学農学部学術報告 = The Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture. University of the Ryukyus.  pp.103-108,  1980-11-29.  琉球大学農学部
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/4090
概要: 紅麹のみで豆腐[ヨウ]を製造し, 熟成過程中の一般成分の変化について調べた。1.原料豆腐は, 乾燥処理により水分はかなり減少し, 微生物により豆腐の大豆蛋白質は分解される事がわかった。2.豆腐[ヨウ]区分では, 総窒素および蛋白態窒素は, 著しく減少しアミノ態窒素, 直接還元糖はかなり増加したが, 他の成分は漬込後, あまり変化は認められなかった。3.漬汁区分においては, 総窒素, アミノ態窒素, 直接還元糖等は, 漬込初期に著しく増加し, 12週目には減少していた。アンモニア態窒素及び蛋白態窒素は漬込後, 増加しその後は除々に減少していた。4.豆腐[ヨウ]の熟成の目安の一つとして, 原料豆腐中の蛋白態窒素に対する熟成豆腐[ヨウ]の蛋白態窒素の割合が考えられ, その比率を求めると約52%であった。5.豆腐[ヨウ]に吸着される紅麹色素は, 熟成に伴い増加していた。<br />This paper reports changes in the chemical components of the Tofuyo and Soak processed by Beni-Koji as a function of an aging process. The results obtained were as follows : 1. In the dehydration process of Tofu, moisture and protein decreased remarkably. 2. The chemical components of Tofuyo behaved in a way different from those of Soak. (i) The contents of the total nitrogen and protein nitrogen of Tofuyo decreased markedly, and those of amino nitrogen and reducing sugar increased significantly. But after soaking, other components did not change notably. (ii) The contents of the total nitrogen, amino nitrogen, and reducing sugar of Soak increased at an early stage, but these contents decreased at the final stage. However, the contents of the ammonia nitrogen and protein nitrogen of Soak increased, after that, these contents decreased gradually. 3. As one of the indicators for determining the ripeness of Tofuyo, a use of a coefficient, a percentage of Tofuyo protein nitrogen to Tofu protein nitrogen, was proposed. And the value for the best ripening stage was determined as 52%. 4. Beni-Koji pigments in Tofuyo increased throughout the aging process carried out. 続きを見る