1.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
Takakura, Minoru ; Miyagi, Masaya ; Kyan, Akira
出版情報: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine.  26  2021-02-17.  BioMed Central
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/47886
概要: Background:Smoking among Japanese adolescents has decreased noticeably. However, little is known whether the decreasing trend in adolescent smoking can be seen across all socioeconomic status (SES) groups. This study aimed to examine trends in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking among Japanese adolescents between 2008 and 2016. Methods:We conducted a repeated cross-sectional study using data from three surveys of high school students in Okinawa, Japan, in 2008, 2012, and 2016. The study participants consisted of 7902 students in grades 10 through 12 (15–18 years). Smoking was assessed as current cigarette use. SES indicators included familial SES (parental education and family structure) and student’s own SES (school type). To evaluate absolute and relative inequalities, prevalence differences (PDs) and ratios (PRs) between low and high SES groups were estimated. The slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were also calculated. Results:Smoking prevalence among boys and girls significantly declined from 11.5% and 6.2% in 2008 to 4.7% and 1.9% in 2016, respectively. Similar decreasing trends in smoking were found among most of the SES groups. The PDs and SII for parental education in boys and family structure in girls decreased over time while those for school type persisted among boys and girls. The PRs and RII for school type in boys increased while those for other SES indicators among both sexes remained stable over time. Conclusions:Smoking among Japanese adolescents has been declining and time trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking varied by absolute and relative measures. Further policies and/or interventions to reduce smoking inequalities should focus on the context of schools, especially in vocational high schools. 続きを見る
2.

論文(リポジトリ)

論文(リポジトリ)
Agampodi Mendis, Radeesha Laknath ; Sekimoto, Atsushi ; Okano, Yasunori ; Minakuchi, Hisashi ; Dost, Sadik
出版情報: Crystals.  11  2021-01-26.  MDPI
URL: http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12000/48145
概要: The effect of solutal Marangoni convection on flow instabilities in the presence of thermal Marangoni convection in a Si-Ge liquid bridge with different aspect ratios A_s has been investigated by three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations under zero gravity. We consider a half-zone model of a liquid bridge between a cold (top plane) and a hot (bottom plane) disks. The highest Si concentration is on the top of the liquid bridge. The aspect ratio (A_s) drastically affects the critical Marangoni numbers: the critical solutal Marangoni number (under small thermal Marangoni numbers (Ma_TA_s<_~1800)) has the same dependence on As as the critical thermal Marangoni number (under small solutal Marangoni numbers (400<_~Ma_CA_s<_~800)), i.e., it decreases with increasing A_s. The azimuthal wavenumber of the traveling wave mode increases as decreasing A_s, i.e., larger azimuthal wavenumbers (m=6,7,11,12, and 13) appear for A_s=0.25, and only m=2 appears when A_s is one and larger. The oscillatory modes of the hydro waves have been extracted as the spatiotemporal structures by using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). The present study suggests a proper parameter region of quiescent steady flow suitable for crystal growth for smaller aspect ratios of the liquid bridge. 続きを見る
3.

図書

図書
editors, Lewis E. Braverman, David S. Cooper, Peter A. Kopp
出版情報: Philadelphia, PA : Wolters Kluwer, c2021
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4.

図書

図書
Yoshio Sugimoto
出版情報: Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2021
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5.

図書

図書
editors-in-chief, Peter M. Howley, David M. Knipe
出版情報: Philadelphia : Wolters Kluwer, c2021
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6.

図書

図書
volume associate editor, Sean P. J. Whelan
出版情報: Philadelphia : Wolters Kluwer, c2021
シリーズ名: Fields virology / editors-in-chief, Peter M. Howley, David M. Knipe ; v. 1
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7.

図書

図書
[edited by] Vinay Kumar, Abul K. Abbas, Jon C. Aster ; with illustrations by James A. Perkins
出版情報: Philadelphia, Pa. : Elsevier, c2021
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8.

図書

図書
Goodman, Lawrence R. (Lawrence Roger), 1943-
出版情報: Philadelphia, PA : Elsevier, c2021
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9.

図書

図書
Asya Pereltsvaig
出版情報: Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2021
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10.

図書

図書
Rodney H. Jones, Sylvia Jaworska, and Erhan Aslan
出版情報: London : Routledge, 2021
シリーズ名: Routledge English language introductions
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